BI-200SM Research Goniometer

  • BI-200SM Research Goniometer
The Brookhaven Instruments Approach to Light Scattering


Brookhaven Instruments’ scientists have extensive experience in the development of instruments and methods for light scattering. This experience has been incorporated into the BI-200SM Research Goniometer to make it the finest instrument available for research applications of light scattering.

With a Brookhaven Instruments BI-200SM Research Goniometer System, this rich field of exploration is open to you for studies of both Static Light Scattering (SLS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS).

The Bl-200SM Research Goniometer System provides access to all of these studies with an automatic, modular, and versatile system. It is a precision instrument designed for exacting scattering measurements. Based on a special turntable with precision ball bearings and a stepping motor, the Bl-200SM’s modern design and quality construction guarantee precise measurements due to the wobble-free movement of the detector. It is field-proven in hundreds of laboratories. It is ideal for macro-molecular studies and submicron particle sizing.

By taking advantage of the multiple inputs available on the TurboCorr correlator a new capability of the BI-200SM system is created. By adding an optical signal splitter to the beam of scattered light and a second detector it is possible to eliminate the effects of very high-speed interference from the detector(s). This Cross-Correlation System provides remarkably clean information as seen in the article we have presented.

The BI-200SM Research Goniometer modularity simplifies system expansion. Featuring a standard optical rail, the BI-200SM can be used with neutral density filters, a polarizer, an analyzer, and a reference detector. Special sample requirements can often be met by changing the cell holder design or size.


Features at a glance

  • Stepping motor controlled, multiangle measurements
  • Particle size and size distributions
  • Mw, Rg, A2 for dilute polymer solutions
  • Cross-correlation detector option
  • Avalanche photodiode detector option
  • CONTIN, Zimm, Guinier, Fractal, and more


Advantages of the BI-200SM Research Goniometer System
  • Both DLS and SLS modes: Correlation & Intensity Measurements
  • Large angular Range: 8° to 155° with 25mm cells: 15° to 155° with 12 mm cells.
  • Fine Adjustment Control: Read angle to 0.01° directly on large, fine-control adjustment knob.
  • Open Design/Standard Optical Rails: Facilitates user customizations for special purposes.
  • Temperature Control: Heating and cooling via any standard external circulator Separate temperature and filtration plumbing.
  • Special Design Glass Vats: Specially polished and flat entrance window ensures minimum flare.
  • Alignment Cell: Fine-screw vertical adjustment makes finding the center of rotation easier.
  • Multiple Laser Line Filters: Filter wheel with 632.8 (HeNe), 514.5/488.0 nm (Ar+), one open position for weak scatterers, and 2 blank (shutter) positions. Also available with 532 nm bandpass filter
  • Enhanced Viewing Optics: Coated, precision achromats coupled with behind-the-slit viewing and high-quality eyepiece make alignment easier.
  • Additional Alignment Aperture: Alignment of laser much simpler and faster.
  • Variety of Cell Holders: High precision cell holders standard, low-priced round cells available: 27.5 mm dilution vials fit cell holder sleeve. Special small-volume cell available.

Measurement Principles

Measurement Principles

Light Scattering occurs when polarizable particles in a sample are bathed in the oscillating electric field of a beam of light. The varying field induces oscillating dipoles in the particles and these radiate light in all directions. This important and universal phenomenon is the basis for explaining why the sky is blue, why fog and emulsions are opaque, and other observations. It has been utilized in many areas of science to determine particle size, molecular weight, shape, diffusion coefficients, etc.

Dynamic & Static Light Scattering (DLS/SLS)

Dynamic & Static Light Scattering (DLS/SLS)

In the SLS mode, time-averaged intensity measurements are made – at either fixed or variable angles – in the range from 8° to 155° and analyzed with software provided for the methods of Zimm, Berry, Debye, Guinier, Kratky, etc.


Such evaluations using measured angular or concentration dependencies of the intensity of the scattered light provide key information for those interested in such topics as:

  • Mw Molecular weight determinations
  • Rg Radius of gyration
  • A2 Determination of second virial coefficient
  • Micro-emulsion technology
  • Colloid behavior
  • Complex fluid characterization
  • Emulsion polymerization
  • Particle size growth
  • Nucleation processes


The field of DLS measurements is at least as rich as that of SLS. In this method, the dynamics of the scattered light are determined and analyzed. The short-term intensity fluctuations (dynamics) of the scattered light arise from the fact that the scattering particles are undergoing rapid thermal motions. These movements are called Brownian motion and they cause short-term fluctuations in the intensity of the scattered light. Various terms have been used for this phenomenon. These are Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS), and Quasi-elastic Light Scattering (QELS), We will adhere to DLS. To uncover the key parameters which describe the diffusive motions a digital autocorrelator is used to determine the autocorrelation function (ACF).


From these DLS measurement, many interesting subjects may be explored, among them:

  • Particle size distributions
  • Particle aggregation phenomena
  • Micellar systems
  • Micro-emulsion technology
  • Colloid behavior
  • Vesicles & liposomes
  • Plasmid DNA
  • Particle size growth
  • Nucleation processes & protein crystallization




Beam Focus and SteeringIncludes mounts, adjustments, and apertures
Turntable200 mm O.D. turntable, worm gear, and ball bearnings; manual or automatic selection of angles in 0.01° steps; precision machine base with mounting holes; positioning table with micrometer adjustments (power supply and controller for stepping motor is optional)
Specimen Cell AssemblyIncluding thermal enclosure, centering adjustments, seperate plumbing for temperature control and index matching liquids, round cell holders, square cell holder and alignment cell
Index Matching VatWith optically flat and specially polished entrance window, precision machined and annealed to minimize stray light
Periscopic Beam StopLocated inside vat to prevent flare from exit window; provided with coupling for use with optional, zero-angle reference detector
Main Detector Optics
  • Entrance aperture 3 mm
  • Coated, adjustable achromat for focusing scattered light onto 200 micron slit; slit position adjustable
  • Reflex mirror and high quality eye piece for viewing scattering region through slit
  • Filter turret with 637, 532, 633, 514 and 488nm narrow band pass filters and 100, 200, and 400 micron, 1, 2, and 3 mm pinhole for SLS & DLS measurements.

A policy of continual improvement may lead to specification changes.

Options & Accessories


BI-200SMPt  Allows direct measurement of temperature in the index-matching liquid near the sample cell. Values are updated every second in 32-bit, BI-DLSW software used in calculations.
BI-FC-115 Filtration system for cleaning index matching liquid, 115V
BI-FFFluorescence filter for use with the NanoBrook family of instrumentation
BI-PAPolarization Analyzer, Glan-Thompson prism, 5e-6 extinction
BI-SFS-115The new BI-SFS sample filtration system provides a fast and convenient way to clean your light-scattering samples, a necessity for samples smaller than 20 nm. Utilizing Teflon tubing and nonreactive components, the BI-SFS is compatible with most sample filtration needs. Its modular design allows users to change pump heads and speeds to encompass virtually any possible application.



BI-RC25Nominal 25 mm O.D. Round Quartz Cell, dual Teflon tops, mounting ring
BI-RC7Nominal 27.5 mm O.D. Dilution Vials, a package of 100 with HDPE screw caps
BI-SVCSmall-volume cell for precious samples
BI-SCHSquare cell holder. Use with BI-SCG and BI-SCQ. (Only one is required when using square cells)
BI-SCGSquare glass, 12.5×12.5x45mm, PTFE stopper: Requires BI-SCH
BI-SCQSquare quartz, 12.5×12.5x45mm, PTFE stopper: Requires BI-SCH
BI-SVCH    Small volume round cell holder and universal SVC sleeve


BI-SVK92Particle size validation kit, (92 +/- 3 nm)
BI-LTX92Latex reference material, (92 +/- 3 nm)
BI-Dex50kDextran standard, 50 kDa
BI-PS400kPolystyrene standard, 400 kDa
BI-PS50kPolystyrene standard, nominal molecular weight 50k, 1 gram

Replacement Parts

BI-VATGoniometer replacement Vat
BI-200FPack of 0.2um filters for decalin
BI-200PFPack of pre-filters for decalin
BI-ANAAlignment needle assembly including precision brass centering mount
BI-ANAlignment needle for 200SM (center needle ONLY)
BI-BSTOPBI-200SM beamstop replacement, glass part only
BI-GAKGoniometer service kit including brushes and greases for servicing BI-200SM

Download Brochure

Available Downloads

BI-200SM Research Goniometer Brochure PDF

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